Journal of Pesticide Safety Education

The Journal of Pesticide Safety Education (JPSE) is the organization’s online, open-access, peer-reviewed scholarly journal. JPSE has published consistently since its inception in 1999. It is managed by an editorial staff and seeks members and non-members as reviewers on a per article basis. Publishing in JPSE benefits all members of the organization. It is the primary mechanism to share new methods, research, program descriptions, literature reviews, commentary, publication and media reviews, critiques, article responses, and literary notes.


Articles appearing in JPSE are the property of the journal. Single copies of articles may be reproduced in electronic or print form for use in educational or training activities. Inclusion of articles in other publications, electronic sources, or systematic large-scale distribution may be done only with prior electronic or written permission of the Editor.

Please select a volume below to view article abstracts and full text links.

VOLUME 25 - 2023

Full Text: 84_1-19_v25.pdf

Table of Contents

Templates and Tools – pages 2-12

Pesticide Applicator Certification Exam Readability: How to Estimate an Overlooked Test Characteristic
  • Andrew Martin, Assessment Specialist, Office of Indiana State Chemist, West Lafayette, IN,


This article examines the practice of calculating a readability estimate on pesticide applicator certification exams, posttest construction. It reviews common readability formulas that pesticide regulatory agencies can apply to their test development activities. It provides details on two readability formulas available in Microsoft Word and how these formulas were implemented by a state pesticide regulatory agency to estimate the readability of that state’s Core exam. The article concludes with recommended practices for estimating, evaluating, responding to, and reporting exam readability estimates.

KEYWORDS: pesticide applicator certification exams, readability estimates

Program Description – pages 13-16

Creation of a Digital Media Library to Support Pesticide Safety Education Programming
  • Daniel L. Frank, Director of Virginia Tech Pesticide Programs, Virginia Tech, Department of Entomology, Blacksburg, VA,
  • Jacqueline Brown, Education Support Specialist, Virginia Tech, Department of Entomology, Blacksburg, VA,


Virginia Tech Pesticide Programs has cooperated with the University Libraries at Virginia Tech to create an open repository platform within VTechWorks to house a digital media library to support pesticide safety education. The library contains images and short videos that can be downloaded and used when developing training materials. The library is available for use by anyone around the world, and contributions to its collection are welcomed from the greater pesticide safety education community. Additional information about how images and short videos can be included in the library, and the required information needed, are discussed.

KEYWORDS: digital media library, open repository platform, pesticide safety education programs

Commentary – AAPSE Legacies and History – pages 17-19

Life Member Tribute Series: Mary Grodner
  • Michael J. Weaver, Professor Emeritus & Former Director of Virginia Tech Pesticide Programs, Virginia Tech, Department of Entomology, Blacksburg, VA.

VOLUME 24 -2022

Templates and Tools – Pages 1 to 14

Tips for Successful Web-based Training
  • Brett Wells Bultemeier, Extension Assistant Professor, University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) Pesticide Information Office, Gainesville, FL,
  • Michelle Atkinson, Extension Agent II, UF/IFAS Extension, Manatee County Extension, Palmetto, FL,
  • Erin Harlow, Extension Agent II, UF/IFAS Extension, Columbia County Extension, Lake City, FL,
  • Dewayne Hyatt, System Administrator IV, UF/IFAS Information Technology (IT), Gainesville, FL,


The COVID-19 virus forced many pesticide safety education programs to conduct training exclusively online in 2020. Although the transition was sudden, and for some temporary, many programs will continue to utilize online technologies for pesticide training. While online programs are convenient, more effort and consideration are required beyond opening a webinar and presenting material. Ensuring the presenter can be clearly seen and heard, without distractions, is accomplished by properly setting locations for camera, lighting, and microphones. Slide design and transitions likely need to be altered to maintain audience attention. Unique online considerations like bandwidth must be addressed to maximize engagement. Finally, maintaining an online audience’s attention through interactions must be different from in-person training. This article provides essential tips and guidance on better hosting for online training of pesticide safety education. Full Text: 83-114-1-BAHH.pdf

KEYWORDS: applicator recertification, COVID-19 pandemic, Microsoft Teams, pesticide safety education programs, virtual training, Zoom

Commentary – Pages 15 to 27

IPM, Pesticides, and Risk – Part I: The Untold Story
  • Dan Wixted, Extension Support Specialist III, Cornell Cooperative Extension Pesticide Safety Education Program, Ithaca, NY,


Integrated pest management and pesticide safety education programs seek to help people minimize risks to people and the environment when managing pests. Yet these programs overlook many relevant risks in their programming. The author discusses the adverse consequences of this and provides an example of how to correct the situation. Full Text: 83-1521-W.pdf

KEYWORDS: integrated pest management, non-chemical risks, risk communication, risk perception

IPM, Pesticides, and Risk – Part II: Conquering the Contradiction Conundrum
  • Dan Wixted, Extension Support Specialist III, Cornell Cooperative Extension Pesticide Safety Education Program, Ithaca, NY,


Integrated pest management and pesticide safety education programs seek to help people minimize risks to people and the environment when managing pests. Yet these programs use oft-repeated phrases can confuse and steer them away from the least-risk option. The author discusses the consequences of these phrases and urges a change in messaging. Full Text: 83-2227-W.pdf

KEYWORDS: integrated pest management, least-toxic pesticide, risk characterization

Templates and Tools – Pages 28 to 41

Innovative Virtual Pesticide Recertification Webinar Series Achieves Success during the COVID-19 Pandemic
  • Ronda Hirnyck, Extension Professor, University of Idaho/College of Agricultural and Life Sciences (UI/CALS) Pesticide Programs, Boise, ID,
  • Kimberly Tate, Associate Extension Instructor, UI/CALS, Pesticide Safety Education Program, Boise, ID,
  • William J. Price, Director of Statistical Programs, UI/CALS, Statistical Programs, Moscow, ID,
  • Doug Finkelnburg, Area Extension Educator, UI/CALS, Nez Perce County Extension, Lewiston, ID,
  • Danielle Gunn, Extension Educator, UI/CALS, Fort Hall Reservation, Fort Hall, ID,
  • Steven Hines, Extension Educator, UI/CALS, Jerome County Extension, Jerome, ID,
  • Jerry Neufeld, Extension Educator, UI/CALS, Canyon County Extension, Caldwell, ID,
  • Brad Stokes, Extension Educator, UI/CALS, Elmore County Extension, Mountain Home, ID,


Pesticide safety education programs (PSEP) for recertification were halted due to the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. However, pesticide applicators needed relevant, easy access to educational material to maintain their pesticide licenses through continuing education credit (CEC) programs. University of Idaho (UI) PSEP addressed applicator needs by delivering online webinars that met state CEC regulations. The UI PSEP staff launched a project to measure the demographics of attendees, online program effectiveness, and impacts of using online delivery for PSEP recertification programming. Full Text: 83-2841-HTPFGHNS.pdf

KEYWORDS: applicator recertification, continuing education credits, online webinars, pesticide safety education programs, Zoom

Review – Pages 42 to 43

A Review of the “How to Comply with the 2015 Revised Worker Protection Standard for Agricultural Pesticides” Manual
  • Emily Kraus, Assistant Extension Scientist, University of Florida, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, Pesticide Information Office, Gainesville, FL,

Full Text: 83-4243-K.pdf

Review – Pages 44 to 46

A Training Resource for Urban Pest Control Professionals
  • Stephen M. Vantassel, Vertebrate Pest Specialist, Montana Department of Agriculture, Lewistown, MT,

Full Text: 83-346-V.pdf

VOLUME 23 -2021

Research Study – Pages 1 to 8

Using Microsoft Teams and Zoom to Deliver Pesticide License Training and Certification
  • Brett Wells Bultemeier, Extension Assistant Professor, University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences (UF/IFAS) Pesticide Information Office, Gainesville, FL,
  • Michelle Atkinson, Extension Agent II, UF/IFAS Extension, Manatee County Extension, Palmetto, FL,
  • Joe Gasper, System Administrator IV, IFAS Information Technology (IT), Gainesville, FL,
  • Jason Ferrell, Director, Center for Aquatic and Invasive Plants and UF/IFAS Pesticide Information Office, UF/IFAS Extension, Gainesville, FL,


Pesticide safety educators have turned to online delivery to reach a wider applicator audience and to adapt to the impacts of the COVID-19 virus. Microsoft® Teams and Zoom have been the most widely used among this group. This article discusses these platforms and some of the unique features that can be used to ensure that virtual training and applicator recertification are legal, ethical, and ultimately successful. The authors conclude that distance training will likely be part of the new norm in pesticide training. Full Text: 82-18-1-BAGF.pdf

KEYWORDS: applicator recertification, COVID-19 pandemic, Microsoft Teams, pesticide safety education programs, virtual training, Zoom

Research Study – Pages 9 to 43

Comparing the Removal of Pesticide Residue from Clothing with Different Washing and Drying Methods
  • Thia B. Walker, Extension Specialist – Pesticide Safety Education Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO,
  • Claudia M. Boot, Research Scientist, Central Instrumentation Facility, Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO,
  • Jeffrey M. Edwards, Pesticide Applicator Training Coordinator, Specialist, University of Wyoming Extension, Laramie, WY,
  • Mark J. Bareta, Research Associate , Colorado State University, Department of Agricultural Biology, Fort Collins, CO,
  • Karolien Denef, Associate Director, Central Instrumentation Facility, Department of Chemistry, Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO,
  • Melanie Burnett, Colorado State University – Research Associate, Central Instrumentation Facility, Department of Chemistry, Fort Collins, CO.
  • Troy Bauder, Water Quality Specialist, Colorado State University Extension, Fort Collins, CO,
  • Zachary D. Weller, Assistant Professor, Departments of Statistics Colorado State University, Fort Collins, CO,


This study investigated numerous factors influencing the removal of carbaryl or permethrin from various types of clothing. These factors included application rate (1X or 9X), washing machine type (full-fill agitator or high efficiency), clothing type (blue jeans, work shirt, T-shirt, or cotton/polyester blend T-shirt), and drying method (electric dryer or clothesline). Additionally, this study examined transference to baby Onesies® during laundering and assessed the role of Ultraviolet-B (UV-B) exposure in reducing residues for articles dried on clotheslines.  Contamination inside washing and drying machines and pesticide levels in wastewater were also examined. The results indicated that both washing machine types were effective at removing carbaryl and permethrin from the clothing. Among the different fabric types, blue jeans consistently retained more residues than other clothing types used in the study. Transference of pesticide to the Onesies® occurred with all pesticides at both rates, indicating pesticide-contaminated clothing should be laundered separately from all other laundry, including other work clothes or family clothes. Based on the findings of this study, we provide safety recommendations for applicators and laundering guidelines for effectively decontaminating clothing. Full Text: 82-942-WBEBDBBW.PDF

KEYWORDS: pesticide removal; clothing decontamination; pesticide transference; pesticides in wastewater

VOLUME 22 -2020

Program Description – Pages 1 to 14

Credentialing Pesticide Applicators: Standard Setting in a Licensure Context
  • Andrew Martin, Assessment Specialist, Office of Indiana State Chemist, West Lafayette, IN,
  • Leo Reed, Manager, Licensing and Certification, Office of Indiana State Chemist, West Lafayette, IN,


This article addresses the concept of standard setting to establish an appropriate minimum passing score on licensure exams. It examines a variety of standard setting methods accepted by the larger credentialing community. It provides a rationale for standard setting by logical, defensible means and it offers, as an example, the standard setting method adopted by the Office of Indiana State Chemist in 2009. The article concludes with suggested best practices when introducing standard setting into an exam development program. Full Text: 81-114-1-MR.pdf

KEYWORDS: exam development, licensure testing, pesticide applicator certification exam, standard setting

VOLUME 21 -2019

Research Study – Pages 1 to 11

Knowing Your Clientele: Analysis of the Texas Pesticide Safety Education Program
  • Ashton Logsdon, Don Renchie, Mark Matocha, Gary Briers


The study described in this article was conducted to determine if an association exists between participants’ demographics and their perceptions of program quality for the Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service Pesticide Safety Education Program (PSEP). Using data collected from individuals who underwent training from the PSEP between 2009 and 2016, it was determined that the participant’s age, length of service, and applicator status were the most influential demographic attributes. Findings from the study supported previous findings on educational barriers and have allowed for improved educational efforts to better target PSEP clientele. Full Text: 80-111-1-AL.pdf

KEYWORDS: demographic correlation, pesticide safety education program

VOLUME 20 -2018

Research Study – Pages 1 to 12

A Survey of Use and Laundering Practices for Garments Worn by Pesticide Applicators
  • Anugrah Shaw , Carol Black , Kristine Schaefer , Lisa Blecker , Thia Walker , Amy Brown


Pesticide applicator garments and laundering habits were assessed in late 2016 and early 2017 during continuing education programs. Paper-based surveys were administered in California, Colorado, Iowa, Maryland, and Washington state. In Colorado, data were also collected electronically using an audience response system. Shirts and pants continue to be the most commonly worn garments by pesticide applicators (72%). A small percentage wore reusable cloth (10%) or disposable (15%) coveralls. An even smaller number wore rain suits (3%). Most of the contaminated garments (78%) were washed at home. Top-load washing machines with either hot or warm water were the most common, and more people used dryers compared to line drying. Full Text: 79-112-1-AS.pdf

KEYWORDS: decontamination, laundering, pesticides, protective clothing, work clothing

VOLUME 19 -2017

Research Study – Pages 1 to 5

Status of Online Training for Pesticide Applicators
  • Amy E. Brown


Online training for pesticide applicators is becoming more widely available. Acceptance by trainers and regulators, however, varies. In 2017, the University of Maryland Extension Pesticide Safety Education Program conducted a survey to determine how many states and provinces allow online training to satisfy pesticide applicator training requirements. The survey results provide a snapshot of the current acceptance of online training options throughout North America. Full Text: 78-444-1-PB.pdf

KEYWORDS: certification and training, distance learning, online training, pesticide applicators

VOLUME 18 -2016

Research Study – Pages 1 to 11

A Closer Examination of EPA’s Proposed Amendments to 40 CFR Part 171: Certification of Pesticide Applicators – Impacts on Texas
  • Dean A. McCorkle, Dan D. Hanselka, Don L. Renchie, Mark A. Matocha, Janis J. Reed


In 2015, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a report entitled “Economic Analysis of Proposed Amendments to 40 CFR Part 171: Certification of Pesticide Applicators.” The objective of this study was to assess EPA’s report; more specifically, the estimated economic impact on Texas pesticide applicators and the state. Additionally, an effort was made to replicate EPA’s economic cost calculations for Texas. For private and commercial applicators, most of EPA’s estimated costs are tied to the proposed minimum age requirement. Several economic costs were identified that were not taken into account by EPA. We contend that these should be included in order to assess the full economic impact associated with the proposed changes in regulations. For private applicators, these costs include time and travel costs to attend the proposed additional certification trainings. For commercial applicators, they include lost business revenue and associated travel cost. For the state, costs include Texas A&M AgriLife Extension Service agricultural agents’ and specialists’ time and increased travel expenses to conduct more certification trainings. As a result of this analysis, the authors developed a template that allows states to determine the economic impact (on agencies and applicators) of EPA’s proposed changes within their states. Full Text: 77-439-2-PB.pdf

KEYWORDS: certification and training, economic costs, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), pesticide applicators

Program Description – Pages 12 to 28

Establishment of the North Carolina Pesticide Incident Surveillance Program and the Integration of its Findings into Pesticide Safety Education Programs
  • Sheila Higgins, Ricky Langley, Wayne Buhler


Pesticides are widely used in residential, agricultural, municipal, and commercial establishments to control a variety of pests. However, improper use of pesticides may result in adverse health effects. Reporting acute pesticide-related illnesses to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention is voluntary, and the extent of unintentional pesticide exposures and resulting harmful effects is not known in most states. To address this issue, the North Carolina Division of Public Health established a pesticide incident surveillance program that requires all healthcare providers in the state to report pesticide-related injury and illnesses within 48 hours of diagnosis. We describe the steps involved in establishing this statewide program, an analysis of the cases reported over the first six years, and how the data collected are used in various pesticide safety education outreach efforts within North Carolina. Full Text: 76-400-1-PB.pdf

KEYWORDS: pesticides, pesticide-related illnesses, pesticide exposure, pesticide incident surveillance program, pesticide safety education

VOLUME 17 -2015

Commentary – Pages 1 to 14

A Call for Clear and Accurate Communication about PPE for Dermal Protection for Pesticide Handlers
  • Anugrah Shaw, Carol A. Black, Courtney Harned


Current terminology and the process used for assigning personal protective equipment (PPE) for dermal protection affect the quality and accuracy of PPE labeling and outreach resources that pesticide handlers and their employers rely on. The PPE statements must be clear, concise, and consistent across labels since they are the primary means for communicating risk mitigation for those supervising or handling pesticide products. Confusing, inaccurate, and/or general PPE statements on pesticide labels or outreach materials negate the time, effort, and resources expended in conducting exposure studies, risk assessment, risk mitigation, and training. Throughout this document, examples are provided to illustrate common shortcomings in PPE labeling and to demonstrate the need for EPA to review its processes, science, and information management to more clearly communicate what PPE is required to protect pesticide handlers. By engaging in a dialogue and making necessary changes, EPA can provide guidance for registrants to label their products, for educators and regulators to develop outreach materials, and for employers to purchase PPE that protects their workforce from pesticide exposure. Full Text: 74-382-1-PB.pdf

KEYWORDS: personal protective equipment, pesticide handlers, dermal protection, pesticide labels

Tools and Methods – Pages 15 to 24

The SpotOnTM Sprayer Calibrator, a Digital Flow Meter: Accuracy Evaluation and Use in Pesticide Safety Education Programs
  • Robert E. Wolf, Patricia A. Hipkins, Scott M. Bretthauer, Robert D. Grisso, H. Mark Hanna, Randal K. Taylor, James A. Wilson


Six independent tests were conducted to evaluate the accuracy of the SpotOnTM Sprayer Calibrator, a digital flow meter produced by Innoquest. The results are presented in this article. The authors also discuss the pros and cons of using this device to measure flow rate and explain how it may be used in educational programs. Tests confirmed that the SpotOn™ Sprayer Calibrator measures nozzle flow rate accurately, quickly, and easily. Pesticide safety educators can use this device to demonstrate the factors involved in nozzle flow rate, identify worn nozzles, and calculate a system’s application rate. Full Text: 75-387-1-PB.pdf

KEYWORDS: application rate, calibration, flow rate, flow meter, Innoquest, SpotOnTM

VOLUME 16 -2014

Program Description – Pages 1 to 16

Employment and Salary Base Supported by Cooperative Extension’s Pesticide Safety Education Programs
  • Dean A. McCorkle, Don Renchie, Dan Hanselka, Carol Black


The objective of this study was to evaluate the number of certified commercial pesticide applicator jobs and wages that are supported by Cooperative Extension’s pesticide safety education programs (PSEPs) in California, Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Nebraska, North Carolina, and Texas. The purpose of the analysis was to provide a methodology for PSEPs to use in describing the employment and wage contributions realized from their resource development, distribution, and training efforts for pesticide applicator certification. The economic analysis focused on certified commercial applicators, as defined by federal regulation. The findings from this study of seven states show that the PSEPs directly contributed to 120,543 pesticide applicator jobs with a total salary base of $3.9 billion. Full Text: 72-373-1-PB.pdf

KEYWORDS: pesticide safety education programs, commercial pesticide applicator, economic analysis, employment, wages

Research Study – Pages 17 to 26

A Survey of Chemical Resistant Glove Use Practices and Preferences of Pesticide Applicators
  • Carol Black, Anugrah Shaw, Courtney Harned, Charlotte Coffman


During pesticide recertification training meetings in 2012 and 2013 in Washington, Michigan, Iowa, and New York, audience response systems (clickers) were used to gather pesticide applicators’ input on their use of and preferences for chemical resistant gloves. Nitrile, reusable or disposable, was the most commonly selected glove material. Thirty-one percent of applicators selected a disposable glove variety when identifying the glove material they wear most (nitrile disposable, 28%; neoprene disposable, 3%). Many applicators indicated that they wear the same glove for multiple products (73%) or tasks (66%). Only 27% of respondents identified following label requirements as the primary reason for choosing gloves. The data indicate that outreach resources need to be developed for applicators and those who sell gloves to applicators. Full Text: 71-376-1-PB.pdf

KEYWORDS: chemical resistant gloves, nitrile, pesticide applicators, label requirements

VOLUME 15 -2013

Templates and Tools – pages 1 to 16

Can a National Job Analysis Serve as a Basis for Individual State Certification Exams? Answers from a National Pesticide Applicator Exam Development Project
  • Andrew Martin, Fred Whitford


This article addresses the extent to which a national pesticide applicator job analysis can legitimately serve as a basis for state-specific pesticide applicator certification examinations. A national right-of-way herbicide applicator job task questionnaire was developed and distributed to a random sample of certified applicators in North Carolina and Colorado. These two states were purposely selected because of different weed species, climate, geography, and state laws. Respondents from both states collectively rated all but one of the constituent job tasks as either very or extremely important. An analysis of response differences between the two states indicated statistically significant item-rank differences between North Carolina and Colorado applicators for several tasks (p < .05), but the effect sizes were not meaningful. The results suggest that a national job analysis can serve as a sound basis for individual state certification exams. Full Text: 69-361-1-PB.pdf

Research Study – pages 17 to 29

Analysis of Personal Protective Equipment Requirements on Labels of Pesticides for Agricultural Use
  • Anugrah Shaw, Courtney Harned


Personal protective equipment (PPE) is one way to protect the health and safety of pesticide handlers. EPA’s Worker Protection Standard mandates that PPE requirements for handlers be stated on labels of pesticide products intended for agricultural use. The requirements, based on potential risk, range from no requirements for certain categories to more stringent requirements that affect comfort and job performance. As labels are the primary means of communicating PPE requirements, the study was conducted to analyze label data to address stakeholders’ concerns regarding PPE use, protection, availability, and comfort. Additionally, label language was examined for accuracy, consistency, and clarity. A performance-based approach to assign PPE based on risk assessment, as opposed to garment type, is proposed to simplify pesticide product labeling. Full Text: 70-360-1-PB.pdf

KEYWORDS: personal protective equipment, risk assessment, pesticide label requirements, chemical-resistant garments, performance-based standards

Literature Review – pages 30 to 61

A Review of the Spray Drift Literature for Ground Applications
  • Robert E. Wolf


This article is a summary review of the scientific, trade, and Extension literature of recent research and other documents discussing practices designed to minimize spray (particle) drift. The search included nearly 300 reviewable documents from 2005 to 2011 that met certain criteria. After eliminating duplicates, this summary comprised 82 referenced items from multiple sources. The review was organized into the following categories: air-blast sprayers, nozzles, buffers, the environment, simulation models, adjuvants, and miscellaneous (ex. reports and Extension publications). Aerial application was not included. Each item reviewed was summarized to provide a brief overview of the project or document and to report any conclusions that may help reduce spray drift. From these summary statements, the author has prepared a separate paper (see following article) discussing recommended drift-reduction practices. Full Text: 68-369-1-PB.pdf

KEYWORDS: spray drift, best management practices, application, spray nozzles, air-blast sprayers, spray shields, buffer zones, windbreaks, drift-control agents, computer models

Literature Review – pages 62 to 69

Drift-Reducing Strategies and Practices for Ground Applications
  • Robert E. Wolf


This publication is a companion to “A Review of the Spray Drift Literature for Ground Applications” (see preceding article). It comprises a list of strategies and practices that have been shown to reduce spray drift. The goal of this publication is to provide an inventory of best management practices to advise applicators on how to mitigate spray drift. The list was developed from a review of spray drift literature for ground applications spanning the years 2005 to 2011 as reported in this journal. Each strategy or practice listed is taken from a reviewed publication and is supported by research data. Ninety-seven items are listed and categorized into the following sections: air-blast sprayers, nozzles, buffers, the environment, simulation models, adjuvants, and miscellaneous (ex. reports and Extension publications). Though the list is quite extensive, each practice is unique to a particular study. Thus, it is difficult to develop a general list of set practices applicable to all (or most) application scenarios. Full Text: 67-371-1-PB.pdf

KEYWORDS: strategies, practices, pesticide, spray drift management, ground application

VOLUME 14 -2012

Templates and Tools – pages 1 to 12

A Custom Web-based Pesticide Recordkeeping System for UF/IFAS Faculty and Staff
  • Fred Fishel


The UF/IFAS Pesticide Recordkeeping System is a database designed to assist faculty and staff with pesticide-related recordkeeping. The online database contains modules for storing pesticide application records; faculty, staff, and student pesticide applicator license information; and WPS training documentation. The purpose of the system is to provide standardized recordkeeping across all departments and research and education centers that complies with state, federal, and UF/IFAS pesticide policies and procedures, and is user-friendly. This article describes the attributes of the UF/IFAS Pesticide Recordkeeping System. Full Text: 58-317-1-PB.pdf

Templates and Tools – pages 13 to 22

A Low-Cost Method of Estimating Outreach-based Changes in Recommended Practices
  • Amy E. Brown


University Extension educators want to change behavior, not simply improve learning or change attitudes. Thus, it is increasingly important to demonstrate impacts rather than outputs. However, methods to survey changes in adoption of recommended practices typically are expensive, time consuming and have low response rates. This article presents a low-cost survey method used in Maryland that provides a rich source of audience-determined data that can be used for impact reporting, to generate ideas for research and to provide feedback to enhance educational outreach. The method is particularly useful for audiences such as pesticide applicators that attend periodic recertification classes. Full Text: 63-331-1-PB.pdf

Templates and Tools – pages 23 to 32

Pairing Epidemiological Research Results with a Practical Message to Improve Pesticide Applicators’ Personal Safety Practices
  • Amy E. Brown, Carol Ramsay, Carrie Foss


Extension educators seek to effect positive behavioral changes in reducing pesticide exposures. Maryland and Washington Pesticide Safety Education programs incorporated Agricultural Health Study (AHS) research results in an audience response presentation. The AHS findings served as potential motivators to influence behavioral changes. The presentation was carefully designed to avoid overstating risk messages to applicators not involved in the studies, and to emphasize applicators’ ability to mitigate potential risks through regular use of exposure reduction practices. The results indicate safety educators can effectively deliver epidemiological research findings paired with a clear message of risk reduction measures applicators can adopt. Full Text: 59-336-1-PB.pdf

Research Study – pages 33 to 46

A Survey of Pest Problems and Pesticide Use in California Childcare Centers, Including Healthy Schools Act Compliance
  • Belinda Messenger, V. Leonard, C. Dodson, A. Bradman


The 2006 amendment to the Healthy Schools Act of California requires childcare centers to notify parents and staff of pesticide use, but less than half of those responding to a 2008 survey complied with this law. Almost all California childcare centers responding to the survey reported that they have pests, such as ants and spiders and that they use pesticides to manage those pests. More than half of the responding childcare centers use spray and fogger pesticides, which have a higher potential to expose children to active ingredients than baits and crack and crevice treatments. Full Text: 60-339-1-PB.pdf

VOLUME 13 -2011

Templates and Tools – pages 1 to 5

“Tagging” Your Program: A New Tool for Educators
  • Catherine H. Daniels


A technology that is fairly new to academia—tagging—is easy to do, inexpensive, and guaranteed to expand the range of ways you communicate with your clients. Tags, readable by smartphones, can open web pages, play videos, display pictures and PDFs, provide your contact information, or even dial phone numbers. Software to create and manage tags is available and for one system, is free. This article discusses one program in detail, including how to get started, possible PSEP program applications, and ways to track and create reports on client access. Full Text: 54-306-1-PB.pdf

Templates and Tools – pages 6 to 13

Developing Fact Sheets for Diverse Audiences
  • David L Stone, Kaci J Buhl, Jennifer Gervais, Bryan Luukinen


The National Pesticide Information Center (NPIC) specializes in providing risk communication about pesticides through a call center and through online fact sheets. Here, we discuss our process for developing fact sheets for pesticide active ingredients based on our experience in responding to questions and concerns from across the United States. Issues are presented that include: 1) addressing the scope, design and review of informational materials; 2) targeting content for general and technical audiences; and 3) branding NPIC as a recognizable source of objective pesticide information. Full Text: 53-281-1-PB.pdf

Research Study – pages 14 to 23

What is the Value of Extension Training for Certified Pesticide Applicators?
  • Doug Young, Carol A. Ramsay


Through an email survey, the authors estimate the annual value of certified applicator training programs range from $6,787 (initial certification) to $13,366 (recertification) per trainee. When trainee economic benefits were compared to program costs, the most conservative benefit to cost ratio is 20:1. Extrapolation to training provided by other Washington State University Extension faculty resulted in a 14:1 ratio. These high benefit to cost ratios provide strong justification for continuing certified pesticide applicator training. Survey respondents overwhelmingly reported that training had improved their personal safety, helped protect the environment and increased their awareness of, and compliance with pesticide regulations. Full Text: 57-311-1-PB.pdf

VOLUME 12 -2010

pages 1 to 12

Operation S.A.F.E. Fly-in: The North Carolina Experience
  • Wayne G. Buhler, Dennis R. Gardisser, Richard W. Whitney


The Operation S.A.F.E. fly-in program is designed to evaluate the application accuracy of aerially applied chemicals and seed. Pilots simulate an application by flying over a line of measurement or collection devices. Results are analyzed using computer software and a report is produced of the aircraft’s output and uniformity. This article describes a fly-in conducted in North Carolina. Goals of the program were to equip workshop participants with the knowledge and experience to sponsor and conduct subsequent fly-ins, and to provide an opportunity for local pilots to improve the pesticide, fertilizer, and seed deposition of their aircraft. Full Text: 49-213-1-PB.pdf

KEYWORDS: Aerial application, application analysis, Operation S.A.F.E., fly-in

VOLUME 11 -2009

pages 1 to 10

Professional Continuing Education for Commercial Pesticide Applicators: A Case Study in Standard Setting
  • Andrew Martin, Leo Reed, Fred Whitford, Joseph Becovitz


Indiana’s pesticide regulatory agency, the Office of Indiana State Chemist, offers commercial pesticide applicators an option of renewing certification by re-testing or through continuing education. The program has operated under policy during its 30-year history and was only recently drafted into rule. The most significant hurdle to rule development was determining an appropriate number of recertification training hours for each applicator category. A successful outcome was achieved through democratic negotiation with the regulated community based on the results of a category-by-criteria rating activity that rationally determined number of training hours. Full Text: 44-198-1-PB.pdf

VOLUME 10 -2008

Research Study – pages 1 to 6

Pesticide Applicator Certification Tests: Validation and the Limits of Score Meaning
  • Andrew Martin, Fred Whitford


A review of the basic elements of modern validity theory and an argument-based approach to validation clarifies the principle reason for a deliberative, job-oriented approach to pesticide applicator certification test development: appropriate score interpretation and use. When more meaning is imputed to scores than is warranted, stakeholders may be misled and program credibility can suffer. Special care should be taken to avoid making predictive claims for certification test scores. Caution is also advised when associating the concept of “competence” with score results. Full Text: 32-127-1-PB.pdf

KEYWORDS: test, validation, scores, pesticide, applicator, certification

Literary Note – pages 7 to 12

Comparative Safety Statements or Logos for Pesticide Labels
  • Amy E. Brown


The US Environmental Protection Agency is considering allowing pesticide labels to indicate comparative safety through logos or statements. The objectives are facilitating informed purchaser choices and moving the market toward “safer” products. The elements of the system will need to be carefully chosen to accomplish the program objectives without resulting in unwanted consequences such as resistance development, inappropriate choices, or negation of the protections provided by current label precautions and restrictions. Full Text: 43-172-1-PB.pdf

Program Description – pages 13 to 21

Educating Spanish Speaking Pesticide Handlers: Agricultural and Landscape Workers
  • Steven Reddy, Ronda Hirnyck, Jerry Neufeld, Lisa Downey-Blecker, Luis Urias, Tony McCammon


The native language of many pesticide handlers and workers in the Idaho Treasure Valley is Spanish. These Spanish speaking workers need continuing opportunities to increase their knowledge of proper pesticide safety as it relates to row crop, orchard production, and landscaping pest management. In 2006, University of Idaho Extension Educators began providing annual pesticide safety education program in Spanish. The programs have been attended by 30-50 Spanish speaking students. Pre and post surveys have shown knowledge increases in use of personal protective equipment, sprayer calibration, pesticide spills, insect scouting, long term effects of pesticide exposure, and employer responsibilities. Full Text: 35-187-1-PB.pdf

Literature Review – pages 22 to 53

The History of Lead Arsenate Use in Apple Production: Comparison of its Impact in Virginia with Other States
  • Therese Schooley, Michael Weaver, Donald Mullins, Matthew Eick


Lead arsenate (PbHAsO4) was first used in apple orchards in the 1890s to combat the codling moth, Cydia pomonella (L.), a destructive insect pest. This pesticide was very popular among farmers because of its effectiveness, low cost, ease of use, and persistence. Over the next 60 years the frequency and amount of lead arsenate applications increased. Increased use eventually led to development of pesticide resistance, which started the downward spiral of decreased efficacy requiring growers to increase rates and application frequency. Growers eventually switched to more viable alternates such as DDT. The basic nature of the elements in lead arsenate and its widespread use contributed to the contamination of thousands of acres across the United States. As more landowners become aware of the lead arsenate issue, questions arise about the potential risks to human and environmental health. The story of lead arsenate provides rich insight into pesticide application practices of the past and a benchmark by which to judge current practices in pesticide safety education. Full Text: 1-195-1-PB.pdf

KEYWORDS: lead, arsenate, arsenic, history, soil, contamination, human, health, Virginia, apple, fruit, pest, management, pesticide, safety, environment

VOLUME 9 -2007

Review or Critique – pages 1 to 4

A Review of Vegetable Insect Management
  • Fred Whitford, Michael J. Weaver

No Abstract

Full Text: 6-23-1-PB.pdf

Research Study – pages 5 to 14

Self-Reported Pesticide Label Use Behaviors of Ohio Certified Private Pesticide Applicators.
  • Steven C. Prochaska


Use of the pesticide label is intrinsic to safe and effective use of pesticide. A descriptive study of Ohio Certified Private Pesticide Applicators was conducted to measure the reported use of 11 label components, safety equipment used while mixing and loading pesticides and pesticides applied when growing corn and soybeans. Private applicators read the pesticide label at the beginning of the pesticide application season, if not more often. About 77 percent of survey respondents reported wearing chemical-resistant gloves when loading or mixing pesticides. Respondents most often used glyphosate and atrazine products. Full Text: 4-19-1-PB.pdf

KEYWORDS: private, applicator, label, Ohio, safety, equipment, survey, PPE

Program Description – pages 15 to 19

Ensuring Pesticide Compliance by Partnering Regulatory Programs with Extension
  • Fred Fishel, Dale Dubberly, George Hochmuth


A farm employee pesticide exposure incident in early 2006 led to a comprehensive review of the University of Florida’s compliance with state and federal pesticide regulations at 15 off-campus research and demonstration farms. Joint inspections by state regulators and extension specialists provided important feedback on measures the University farms needed to enact to fully comply with the pesticide regulations. From these voluntary inspections, the University of Florida developed and implemented short- and long-term compliance strategies to help ensure proper training for people using and working around pesticides on University farms. Full Text: 8-27-1-PB.pdf

KEYWORDS: pesticide, exposure, review, compliance, regulations, laws, Florida, inspections

Literary Note – pages 20 to 24

Web-based Distribution of Electronic Labels: Implications for Pesticide Safety Education
  • Amy E. Brown


The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency is considering migrating certain pesticide label information to the Internet, possibly including the Directions for Use section. The program has merit, but will have significant impacts on the user community and on pesticide education. Differences in user category, technological capabilities, and other considerations will affect feasibility and compliance. Constructive input from pesticide safety educators will help maximize the chances for successful implementation. Full Text: 9-31-1-PB.pdf

KEYWORDS: electronic labels EPA Internet literary note

VOLUME 8 -2006

Research Study – pages 1 to 9

Health Status Among Pesticide Applicators at a Mango Plantation in India
  • Chandrasekharan Nair Kesavachandran, Subhodh Kumar Rastogi, Neeraj Mathur, Mohammad Kaleem Javed Siddiqui, Vipul Kumar Singh, Vipin Bihari, Ram Shankar Bharti


Observations of mango plantation workers applying chemicals showed many were mixing pesticides without the appropriate personal protective equipment. Personal hygiene was lacking in that many applicators commonly ate and drank without previously washing their hands. Medical evaluation of thirty-four of these workers at a free health clinic shows pesticide exposure may be linked to health problems. Respiratory, gastrointestinal, ocular and dermal problems were observed; biochemical analysis shows decreased glutathione levels and increased levels of malondialdehyde thereby suggesting significant pesticide exposure. Our study clearly indicates that growers and workers applying pesticides in mango plantations need additional training on how to properly and safely use pesticides. Full Text: 3-8-1-PB.pdf

KEYWORDS: health, occupational, safety, PPE, exposure, pesticide, medical, monitoring

Research Study – pages 10 to 16

Educational Needs Assessment for IPM in Multi-Family and Community Dwellings
  • Carol A. Ramsay, Rebecca L. Hines, Daniel A. Suomi, Sandra K. McDonald


A western region workgroup was formed to conduct a needs assessment for IPM and pesticide safety education in Multi-Family/Community Dwellings; the focus was on nuisance, health and structural pests. Representatives from university extension and research programs, state regulatory agencies, pest management professionals, and owners/managers of Multi-Family/Community Dwellings participated. Three target audiences were identified for educational programming in IPM and pesticide safety: landlord/property managers, residents/tenants, and pest management professionals. To support future efforts in this segment of urban IPM, specific educational needs were identified, a listing of reasonable education opportunities was compiled for each audience and several funding sources were identified. Full Text: 10-36-1-PB.pdf

KEYWORDS: urban, IPM, assessment, pesticide, safety, educational, needs, family, community, dwellings

VOLUME 7 -2005

pages 1 to 9

How Accurate are Phosphine Monitoring Devices?
  • Ronda Danley, Brian D. Adam, Jim Criswell, Ronald Noyes, Thomas W. Phillips


A critical component of worker safety for fumigators monitoring phosphine gas levels is an accurate monitoring device. Researchers evaluated accuracy levels of four electronic devices and a tube-type device while monitoring Oklahoma grain elevators under fumigation; particular attention was paid to accuracy levels in the dangerous range. Average accuracy of the electronic devices ranged from 60% to 100%. Although the tube-type device was technically the most accurate, in practice it may be less accurate due to operator error in reading the tubes. It is important for safety educators to fully understand the benefits and limitations of phosphine monitoring devices. Full Text: 11-40-1-PB.pdf

KEYWORDS: phosphine fumigation monitors, grain storage

VOLUME 6 -2004

Program Description – pages 1 to 14

Use of a Survey as an Educational Tool for Recordkeeping
  • Carol A. Ramsay, Carrie R. Foss


Washington State University conducted training sessions emphasizing pesticide applicator recordkeeping at fourteen different locations in 2002. The purpose was to measure knowledge of recordkeeping requirements before and after the training programs. The training included a self-reporting survey on recordkeeping, a fact sheet, a short presentation, and a post-training survey six months later. The survey measured applicator demographics, specific records kept, and measurement methodology. The pre- and post-training survey data were compared to assess the success of the educational emphasis. The findings show that most applicators had prior knowledge of state recordkeeping requirements, which exceed those required by the United States Department of Agriculture for private applicators. The survey also indicated an overall increase in recordkeeping knowledge after training. On those facets of recordkeeping that were less well known (specifically, use of weather measurement instrumentation and in-field placement of these tools), applicators would benefit from further education. In-class responses and discussion indicated the survey was a useful tool and an enjoyable way to discuss this material. Full Text: 12-44-1-PB.pdf

KEYWORDS: pesticide, safety, education, recordkeeping, survey, tools

Program Description – pages 15 to 23

Instrumentation to Document Environmental Conditions during Pesticide Applications
  • Robert E. Wolf, Patricia A. Hipkins


Proper and accurate assessment of weather conditions before and during an application is necessary to make sound decisions regarding application timing. In addition, good records document proper use in case of a complaint. Simple, relatively inexpensive instruments can be used to measure wind direction and speed as well as other environmental conditions (e.g., temperature and humidity). This article discusses how weather conditions can be measured at a pesticide application site. Full Text: 13-47-1-PB.pdf

KEYWORDS: pesticide, application, timing, weather data, wind, records, drift

Research Study – pages 24 to 33

Non-English Language Needs for Pesticide Safety Education
  • Jennifer Weber, Gerald Kinro, Suzanne Snedeker, Sabina F. Swift


Changes in the demographics of the United States agricultural workforce, specifically occupations requiring employees to handle pesticides, or work in areas where pesticides have been applied, have led to increased needs for non-English language training materials. A study was performed to assess the linguistic needs of these agricultural employees. Results of this study indicate a need for development of pesticide safety materials in many of the over 50 non-English languages spoken or read by agricultural workers. Full Text: 14-52-1-PB.pdf

KEYWORDS: pesticide, workers, non-English, language, safety, education, employees

VOLUME 5 -2003

Review or Critique – pages 1 to 3

A Review of “The Homeowner’s Guide to Integrated Pest Management.”
  • Patricia A. Hipkins, Doug Harris, Becky Hepler, Erica Jones

No Abstract

Full Text: 15-57-1-PB.pdf

Review or Critique – pages 4 to 6

A Review of “The Homeowner’s Guide to Pesticide Safety.”
  • Patricia A. Hipkins, Doug Harris, Becky Hepler, Erica Jones

No Abstract

Full Text: 16-63-1-PB.pdf

Research Study – pages 7 to 24

Using Research to Design and Evaluate Pesticide Dealer Training
  • Wayne G. Buhler, Linda D. Whipker


More than 700 dealers are licensed to sell restricted-use pesticides in North Carolina. Although their primary activity is commerce, dealers often serve as a source of information on pesticide use to their clientele. In order to provide reliable information to their clientele, dealers must have access to unbiased, science-based information on pest management. A mail-in survey of pesticide dealers in North Carolina was conducted in 2001. Based on survey results, a Dealer Day training program was developed and conducted in 2003. Selected responses to the survey and pre- and post-evaluations of the training program are presented. Full Text: 17-65-1-PB.pdf

KEYWORDS: dealer, training, pesticide, safety, education, research, evaluate, design, survey

VOLUME 4 -2002

Program Description – pages 1 to 9

Comparison of Live Skit and Video Delivery Styles Using Presentations With and Without Fluorescent Tracer Dyes at Pesticide Applicator Training for Promotion of Self-Protection from Dermal Exposure.”
  • Carrie R. Foss, Emily H. Allen, Richard A. Fenske, Carol A. Ramsay


Program delivery has a major impact on pesticide applicators’ reception to learning. This study evaluated the impact of different training delivery styles, with and without the demonstration of fluorescent tracers, on dermal pesticide exposure. Three delivery styles were each tested at three large-group pesticide license recertification courses: live fluorescent tracer dye skit, video-taped dye presentation, instructional video. The target pesticide applicator group (764 people) comprised active, non-agricultural applicators that were similar in terms of group size, response rate, age, gender, employer type, and applications performed. Results of the ANOVA tests on eight questionnaire outcome variables showed that the live fluorescent tracer dye skit produced significantly greater positive responses (p<0.05) than the other two delivery styles and that the taped dye presentation produced greater responses than the instructional video. Full Text: 18-69-1-PB.pdf

KEYWORDS: pesticide, safety, education, tracer, dye, exposure, health, delivery, style

Research Study – pages 10 to 21

Pesticide Safety Education Centers: A Feasibility Study
  • Barry M. Brennan


Pesticide education and safety training are critical to reducing personal and environmental exposure to pesticides. It is essential that pesticide safety instructors and state regulatory personnel be able to demonstrate an understanding of pesticide use, classification, regulation, toxicology, and environmental fate. Their credibility with applicators and the general public also requires that they develop effective communication and instructional skills. The feasibility of establishing Pesticide Safety Education Centers to train extension pesticide safety instructors and state and federal regulatory personnel was examined. Possible instructors and trainee groups were identified, mission and goals of a PSEC were defined, existing training models were examined, staff requirements were considered, sources of funding were explored, and a training evaluation system was suggested. Full Text: 19-75-1-PB.pdf

KEYWORDS: pesticide safety education, center, feasibility, study, training, model, demonstration, professional, development

Program Description – pages 22 to 36

The Southern Region Pesticide Safety Education Center: A Regional Approach to Training-the-Trainer
  • Wayne Buhler, Robert McRackan, Michael J. Weaver, Barry M. Brennan, Robert G. Bellinger


The Southern Region Pesticide Safety Education Center was created in 2001 as a “train-the-trainer” program for Cooperative Extension Service agents and state pesticide inspectors from the thirteen-state Southern Region of the United States Department of Agriculture. The goal of the center was to equip Extension agents and state pesticide inspectors with the knowledge and resources necessary for more effective and credible pesticide safety education and regulation. This paper describes the initial program offering of the Center: an on-line (Internet) tutorial and a three-day workshop emphasizing hands-on methods for teaching proper pesticide handling. Full Text: 20-77-1-PB.pdf

KEYWORDS: pesticide, safety, education, center, training, professional, development

VOLUME 3 -2001

Review or Critique – pages 1 to 2

A Review of “Aerial Application: A Training Manual for Pilots Seeking Licensure as Certified Pesticide Applicators
  • Mary L. Grodner, Darryl C. Rester

No Abstract

Full Text: 21-83-1-PB.pdf

Program Description – pages 3 to 11

Interactive Program Delivery for Pesticide Label and Regulatory Topics
  • Carol A. Ramsay, Larry Schulze, Carrie Foss, Shawn Scamahorn, Clyde Ogg


Applicators from several disciplines have responded positively to the development of pesticide label and regulatory information delivered in a Jeopardy game format. Content and structural development for the game is detailed. Three delivery media are discussed: overhead transparencies, poster boards, and computers (on-line and off-line). Internet URL references are provided for PDF files and Web sites that further illustrate game development, interactivity, and delivery. Full Text: 22-85-1-PB.pdf

KEYWORDS: pesticide, safety, education, methods, program, delivery, games

VOLUME 2 -2000

Research Study – Pages 1 to 14

Response to Pre-notification of Pesticide Application in a Public School System
  • Amy E. Brown, Jacob Z. Schmidt


This paper reports on a survey of parents and staff responses to the pesticide pre-notification program implemented in a Maryland county school system. The majority of parents and staff were satisfied with the amount, type, and timing of information provided in the pilot program. Less than 1% of staff and just 2% of parents stayed home or kept children home from school. Less than 5% of respondents believed they or their children had exhibited symptoms of pesticide illness from the school pesticide applications, although less than a third of parents and only 14% of staff reported watching for symptoms. Full Text: 23-100-1-PB.pdf

KEYWORDS: IPM schools pesticide safety health youth

Research Study – Pages 15 to 26

Issues in Non-English Pesticide Applicator Training Programs
  • Myron Shenk


Training pesticide applicators in non-English languages is more difficult than typical English-language training programs because of issues related to: 1) cultural context, 2) language, 3) communications, 4) resources, 5) perceived needs by industry and the public, and 6) socio-political factors. Cultural issues such as American attitudes held by trainers, and belief systems and practices, view of authority and community, and teacher-learner conventions held by “;foreigners,”; can significantly interfere with effective training. Problems of word choice, non-verbal communication, gender issues, resource limitations, perceived training needs, and socio-political issues are also discussed. Full Text: 24-102-1-PB.pdf

KEYWORDS: pesticide safety education training non-English languages communication

Research Study – Pages 27 to 34

Use of Personal Protective Equipment and Laundry Practices By Nebraska Private Applicators and Launderers
  • Rose Marie Tondl, Larry Schulze


The purposes of this study were to determine Nebraska farmers’ knowledge of potential pesticide exposure, their use of personal protective equipment, related laundering procedures of pesticide-soiled clothing, perceived health risks from pesticides and to determine areas of emphasis in future Extension pesticide education programs. Part I data provided information about private applicators’ practices, their experiences in using pesticides, use of personal protective equipment and any signs and symptoms associated with the use of pesticides. Part II data provided information on practices used in laundering pesticide-soiled clothing. Educational efforts need to be aimed at certified pesticide applicators and launderers to insure reduced pesticide exposure and potential health risks. Emphasis needs to be made on wearing required personal protective equipment and to properly handle and clean pesticide-soiled clothing. Full Text: 25-104-1-PB.pdf

KEYWORDS: farmers, Nebraska, pesticide, PPE, protective equipment, clothing, laundering

VOLUME 1 -1999

Program Description – pages 1 to 6

Personal Protective Equipment Displays for County Extension Service Programs
  • Monte P. Johnson, Elizabeth P. Easter


Personal protective equipment (PPE) displays are valuable assets to Cooperative Extension Service programs such as farm safety and pesticide applicator training. Consequently, the goals of this project were to provide county Cooperative Extension Service (CES) offices with PPE display materials and to survey county CES agents concerning pesticide safety programs. Survey results showed that most county Extension agents provide pesticide safety training primarily through private pesticide applicator training. Agents indicated that more training materials were needed. The PPE displays will be used for private pesticide applicator training, office displays and field days. Pesticide safety issues were found to be increasing in significance. Full Text: 26-108-1-PB.pdf

KEYWORDS: applicator, extension, education, pesticide, safety, training

Research Study – pages 7 to 10

1995 Missouri Private Applicator Survey
  • Fred Fishel


Attendees of Missouri’s Private Applicator Training Program were surveyed in 1995 following their completion of certification training. The purpose of the survey was to determine the effectiveness of our training programs and if behaviors would likely change in regards to pesticides and their use. Very positive results were indicated in both the instructional and behavioral modification areas. Full Text: 28-110-1-PB.pdf

KEYWORDS: applicator, extension, education, pesticide, safety, training, survey

Program Description – pages 11 to 14

Improving PAT and IPM Training through an Interactive Training/Testing Program
  • Myron Shenk


With funding from an USDA-ES Competitive Grant, an interactive computer training (ICT) program was developed for training and testing pesticide applicators. Questions are presented throughout the program; requiring a correct answer to proceed to new material. With an incorrect answer, the program loops back to repeat pertinent information. Learning with the ICT method was equal to traditional delivery methods while requiring 50% less time. Trainee interest and involvement was high with ICT. The log file permits printing a record of answers chosen. This record could be used by state agencies for granting PAT recertification credits, or even to test for licensing of pesticide applicators. Full Text: 29-112-1-PB.pdf

KEYWORDS: computer, interactive, video, training, Oregon, testing, pesticide, safety

Program Description – pages 15 to 19

Crop Observation and Recommendation Network: An Electronic Mail Communications Network of Ohio Agricultural Extension Professionals
  • Steven C. Prochaska, Howard J. Siegrist, Gregory A. LaBarge, Steven D. Lichtensteiger


The Crop Observation and Recommendation Network (CORN) utilizes the electronic communications ability of The Ohio State University to link agricultural extension professionals across Ohio for the purpose of identifying current crop pest problems and disseminating appropriate pest control information. CORN is an example of pesticide applicator education concepts in practice. Over 3.8 million dollars in pesticide cost reduction by Ohio agricultural producers was attributed to CORN in 1996. Full Text: 30-114-1-PB.pdf

KEYWORDS: crop, observation, network, extension, pesticide, education, Ohio, agriculture

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